Target on Safety: Driver Fatigue

Fatigue is the result of physical or mental exertion that impairs performance. Driver fatigue may be due to a lack of adequate sleep, extended work hours, strenuous work or non-work activities, or a combination of other factors. The Large Truck Crash Causation Study (LTCCS) reported that 13 percent of Commercial Motor Vehicle (CMV) drivers were considered to have been fatigued at the time of their crash.

Below are some tips that will help you stay healthy and feel well rested during your time on the road.

Tip #1: Get Enough Sleep

Be sure to get an adequate amount of sleep each night. If possible, do not drive while your body is naturally drowsy, between the hours of 12 a.m. to 6 a.m. and 2 p.m. to 4 p.m. Driver drowsiness may impair a driver’s response time to potential hazards, increasing the chances of being in a crash. If you do become drowsy while driving, choose a safe place to pull over and rest.

The circadian rhythm refers to the wake/sleep cycle that our body goes through each day and night. The cycle involves our internal clock and controls the daily pattern of alertness in a human body. With inadequate sleep, the drowsiness experienced during natural “lulls” can be even stronger and may have a greater adverse effect on a driver’s performance and alertness.

A study by the Federal Motor Carrier Safety Administration (FMCSA) found that driver alertness was related to “time-of-day” more so than “time-on-task.” Most people are less alert at night, especially after midnight. This drowsiness may be enhanced if you have been on the road for an extended period of time.

A recent study conducted to determine the risk of having a safety-critical event as a function of driving-hour suggests that incidents are highest during the first hour of driving. The authors hypothesize that drivers may be affected by sleep inertia shortly after waking from sleep. This may be especially true for drivers who sleep in the sleeper berth. Sleep inertia refers to impairment in a variety of performance tasks, including short-term memory, vigilance, cognitive functioning, reaction time and ability to resist sleep.

Tip #2: Maintain a Healthy Diet

Skipping meals or eating at irregular times may lead to fatigue and/or food cravings. Also, going to bed with an empty stomach or immediately after a heavy meal can interfere with sleep. A light snack before bed may help you achieve more restful sleep. Remember that if you are not well-rested, induced fatigue may cause slow reaction time, reduced attention, memory lapses, lack of awareness, mood changes, and reduced judgment ability.

A recent study conducted on the sleeping and driving habits of CMV drivers concluded that an unhealthy lifestyle, long working hours, and sleeping problems were the main causes of drivers falling asleep while driving.

Tip #3: Take a Nap

If possible, you should take a nap when feeling drowsy or less alert. Naps should last a minimum of 10 minutes, but ideally a nap should last up to 45 minutes. Allow at least 15 minutes after waking to fully recover before starting to drive.

Short naps are more effective at restoring energy levels than coffee. Naps aimed at preventing drowsiness are generally more effective in maintaining a driver’s performance than naps taken when a person is already drowsy.

Tip #4: Avoid Medication That May Induce Drowsiness

Avoid medications that may make you drowsy if you plan to get behind the wheel. Most drowsiness-inducing medications include a warning label indicating that you should not operate vehicles or machinery during use. Some of the most common medicines that may make you drowsy are: tranquilizers, sleeping pills, allergy medicines and cold medicines.

In a recent study, 17 percent of CMV drivers were reported as having “over-the-counter drug use” at the time of a crash. Cold pills are one of the most common medicines that may make you drowsy. If you must drive with a cold, it is safer to suffer from the cold than drive under the effects of the medicine.

Tip #5: Recognize the Signals and Dangers of Drowsiness

Pay attention. Indicators of drowsiness include frequent yawning, heavy eyes and blurred vision.

Research has indicated that being awake for 18 hours is comparable to having a blood alcohol concentration (BAC) of 0.08 percent, which is legally intoxicated and leaves you at equal risk for a crash. A 2005 study suggests that three out of every four CMV drivers report having experienced at least one type of driving error as a result of drowsiness.

Tip #6: Do Not Rely on “Alertness Tricks” to Keep You Awake

Behaviors such as smoking, turning up the radio, drinking coffee, opening the window and other “alertness tricks” are not real cures for drowsiness and may give you a false sense of security.

Excessive intake of caffeine can cause insomnia, headaches, irritability and nervousness.  It takes several minutes for caffeine to get into your system and deliver the energy boost you need, so if you are already tired when you first drink a caffeinated drink, it may not take effect as quickly as you might expect. In addition, if you are a regular caffeine user, the effect may be much smaller. Rolling the window down or turning the radio up may help you feel more alert for an instant, but these are not effective ways to maintain an acceptable level of alertness.

Source: DOT/FMCSA CMV Driving Tips: Driver Fatigue


2017 OSHA's Most Frequently Cited Standards

Manufacturing (NAICS 31)

The Occupational Safety and Health Administration (OSHA) keeps records not only of the most frequently cited standards overall, but also within particular industries. The most recent statistics from OSHA reveal the top standards cited in the fiscal year 2017 for the manufacturing industry. This top 10 list comprises establishments engaged in the mechanical, physical or chemical transformation of materials, substances or components into new products.

Description of Violation Cited Standard Number ACV*
1.    Control of Hazardous Energy (Lockout/Tagout) – Following minimum performance requirements for controlling energy from the unexpected start-up of machines or equipment. 29 CFR 1910.147 $6,195
2.    General Requirements for All MachinesProviding proper machine guarding to protect the operator and other employees from hazards. 29 CFR 1910.212 $8,396
3.    Process Safety Management of Highly Hazardous Chemicals – Preventing or minimizing the consequences of catastrophic releases of toxic, reactive, flammable or explosive chemicals that may result in toxic, fire or explosion hazards. 29 CFR 1910.119

 

$7,395
4.    Hazard CommunicationProperly transmitting information on chemical hazards through a comprehensive program, container labeling, SDS and training. 29 CFR 1910.1200 $1,472
5.    Mechanical Power-transmission Apparatus – Following the general requirements on the use of power-transmission belts and the maintenance of the equipment. 29 CFR 1910.219 $2,926
6.    Powered Industrial TrucksEnsuring safety of employees on powered industrial trucks through fire protection, design, maintenance and proper use. 29 CFR 1910.178 $2,645
7.    Wiring Methods, Components and Equipment for General UseUsing proper wiring techniques and equipment to ensure safe electrical continuity. 29 CFR 1910.305 $1,812
8.    Respiratory Protection – Properly administering a respiratory protection program, selecting correct respirators, completing medical evaluations to determine which employees are required to use respirators and providing tight-fitting equipment. 29 CFR 1910.134

 

$717
9.    General Electrical Requirements – Ensuring electric equipment is free from recognized hazards likely to cause death or serious physical harm to employees. 29 CFR 1910.303 $2,761
10. Grain Handling Facilities – Taking proper measures to prevent grain dust fires and explosions by having safety programs in place for quick response and control. 29 CFR 1910.272 $32,603

*ACV (Average Cost per Violation) – The dollar amount represents the average cost per violation that employers in this industry paid in 2017. To understand the full capacity and scope of each standard, click on the standard number to visit www.osha.gov and view the language in its entirety. Source: OSHA.gov  


Compliance Overview - OSHA Inspections

OSHA Inspections

The Occupational Safety and Health Act (OSH Act) requires employers to provide a safe work environment for their workers. The Occupational Safety and Health Administration (OSHA) is responsible for creating workplace safety standards and enforcing compliance with the OSH Act.

OSHA enforces compliance with the OSH Act by conducting inspections, gathering evidence and imposing penalties on noncompliant employers. OSHA penalties are civil penalties that may result in fines. However, OSHA may refer certain violations to the U.S. Department of Justice for criminal prosecution. Actual penalties imposed on an employer take into consideration the gravity of the violation, the size of the employer’s business, good faith efforts the employer makes to comply with the law and the employer’s compliance history.

This Compliance Overview provides a summary of the OSHA inspection process as well as some tips and reminders that employers should be aware of during an actual inspection.

LINKS AND RESOURCES

  • OSHA enforcement programs website
  • OSHA on-site consultations webpage
  • OSHA recommended practices for safety and health programs webpage

COMPLIANCE OFFICERS

  • Conduct inspections
  • Assign specialists to accompany and assist during an inspection
  • Issue citations for noncompliance
  • Can obtain inspection warrants

TIPS FOR EMPLOYERS

  • Check inspector credentials.
  • Notify management when inspector arrives.
  • Determine the purpose and scope of the inspection.
  • Be prepared to prove compliance.
  • Get a copy of the complaint, if possible.
  • Set ground rules for inspection.
  • Cooperate and be responsive.
  • Take note of what the inspector documents.

EMPLOYERS SUBJECT TO OSHA

Most private sector employers in the United States, the District of Columbia and other U.S. jurisdictions are subject to the OSH Act, either directly or through an OSHA-approved state program. State plans are OSHA-approved job safety and health programs operated by individual states instead of federal OSHA. The OSH Act encourages states to develop and operate their own job safety and health programs. State-run safety and health programs must be at least as effective as the Federal OSHA program.

In general, state and local government employees (public employees) are not subject to the OSH Act. However, public employees may be covered through an approved state program.

OSHA INSPECTIONS

OSHA inspections are conducted by OSHA’s compliance safety and health officers. Compliance officers have authority to:

  • Conduct inspections;
  • Assign specialists to accompany and assist them during an inspection (as appropriate or required);
  • Issue citations for noncompliance;
  • Obtain court-issued inspection warrants; and
  • Issue administrative subpoenas to acquire evidence related to an OSHA inspection or investigation.

Whenever possible, OSHA will assign compliance officers with appropriate security clearances to inspect facilities where materials or processes are classified by the federal government.

Compliance officers are required to obey all employer safety and health rules and practices for the establishment that is being inspected. This includes wearing all required protective equipment and necessary respirators. Compliance officers must also follow restricted access rules until all required precautions have been taken.

Employers can request compliance officers to obtain visitor passes and sign visitor registers. However, compliance officers cannot sign any form or release, nor can they agree to any waiver. This prohibition extends to forms intended to protect trade secret information.

OSHA inspections can last for a few hours or take several days, weeks or even months. All inspections can be divided into three stages, an opening conference, a walk-around and a closing conference.

Inspection Scheduling

OSHA inspections can be either programmed or unprogrammed. Unprogrammed inspections generally take precedence over programmed ones.

Unprogrammed inspections are usually triggered by particular reports. OSHA gives priority to unprogrammed inspections in the following order: imminent dangers, fatalities or catastrophes, and employee complaints and referrals. OSHA may also conduct an unprogrammed follow-up investigation to determine whether previously cited violations have been corrected.

Programmed inspections are scheduled based on neutral and objective criteria. Programmed inspections typically target high-hazard industries, occupations or health substances. OSHA considers various factors when scheduling programmed inspections, including employer incident rates, citation history and employee exposure to toxic substances.

Inspection Notice

The OSH Act prohibits providing employers advance notice of an inspection. Individuals that provide advance notice of an OSHA inspection face criminal charges that may result in a fine of up to $1,000, imprisonment for up to 6 months or both.

However, the OSHA Act also allows OSHA to authorize exceptions to the no-notice requirement in situations where advance notice would:

  • Allow an employer to correct an apparent imminent danger as quickly as possible;
  • Facilitate an inspection outside of a site’s regular hours of operation;
  • Ensure the presence of employer and employee representatives or other appropriate personnel during the inspection; or
  • Enhance the probability of an effective and thorough inspection (such as in investigations for complex fatalities).

When an exception is approved, OSHA will not provide more than a 24-hour notice to affected employers.

Inspection Scope

The scope of an OSHA inspection can be comprehensive or partial. A comprehensive inspection is a complete and thorough inspection of the worksite. During a comprehensive inspection, the compliance officer will evaluate all potentially hazardous areas in the establishment. However, an inspection may be considered comprehensive even though, at the compliance officer’s discretion, not all potentially hazardous conditions or practices are actually inspected.

A partial inspection is usually limited to certain potential hazardous areas, operations, conditions or practices at the employer’s establishment. However, at his or her discretion, a compliance officer may expand the scope of a limited inspection. The compliance officer will generally make this decision based on the information he or she gathers during the inspection.

COMPLIANCE OFFICER ARRIVAL

OSHA inspections begin with the compliance officer’s arrival. In general, a compliance officer will arrive for a worksite inspection during the site’s hours of operation. However, OSHA may authorize additional times for an inspection as necessary.

Upon arrival, a compliance officer should present his or her credentials. If necessary, employers can contact their local OSHA office to confirm a compliance officer’s authority to conduct the inspection.

A compliance officer has the right to enter an employer’s premises if he or she has obtained consent from the employer or a warrant ordering the employer to admit the inspector. In either case, employers cannot unreasonably delay an inspection to await for the arrival of the employer representative (inspectors may wait up to one hour to allow an employer representative to arrive from an off-site location).

Tips and Reminders

  • Check inspector credentials.
  • Instruct staff on how to receive inspector.
  • Inform senior management or legal counsel as appropriate.
  • Determine whether you will demand a warrant.

Consent

Employers can consent to admit a compliance officer and perform a worksite inspection. Employers may also provide partial consent, and allow a compliance officer access only to certain areas of their facilities. Compliance officers will make note of any refusals or partial consent and will report it to OSHA. OSHA may take further action against any refusals, including any legal process it may see fit to obtain access to restricted areas.

In sites where multiple employers are present, the compliance officer does not need to obtain consent from all employers present. Consent from just one employer is sufficient to allow the inspector to access the entire worksite.

Warrant

Compliance officers are not required to ask for an employer’s consent when they have a court-issued warrant. The warrant allows the compliance officer access to the employer’s facilities to conduct an inspection.

Employers that do not provide consent have the right to require compliance officers to obtain a warrant before allowing them access to the premises. As a general practice, few employers actually require warrants, though some employers have done so to delay the start of an inspection.

There are, however, some exceptions to the employer’s right to require a warrant. A compliance officer does not need to obtain employer consent or a warrant to access the premises if he or she can establish:

  • The existence of a plain view hazard;
  • That the worksite is an open field or construction site; or
  • The existence of exigent circumstances.

OPENING CONFERENCE

In general, compliance officers will try to make the opening conference brief in order to proceed to the walkaround portion of the inspection as soon as possible. In general, the opening conference is a joint conference,

where both employer and employee representatives participate. However, the compliance officer may hold

separate opening conferences if either employer or employee representatives object to a joint conference.

During the opening conference, compliance officers will discuss with employers:

  • The purpose of the inspection;
  • Any complaints filed against the employer, if applicable;
  • The officers’ right to document evidence (handwritten notes, photos, video and audio recordings);
  • The advantages of immediate abatement and quick fixes;
  • The intended scope of the inspection;
  • A plan for the physical inspection of the worksite;
  • The audit of employee injury and illness records;
  • Referring violations not enforced by OSHA to appropriate agencies;
  • Employer and employee rights during the inspection; and
  • Any plans for conducting a closing conference.

Tips and Reminders

  • Determine the purpose and scope of the inspection.
  • Be prepared to prove compliance.
  • Get a copy of the complaint, if possible.
  • Set ground rules for inspection.
  • Cooperate and be responsive, but DO NOT volunteer information.

As applicable, during the opening conference, employers will also need to present their written certification of hazard assessment and produce a list of on-site chemicals (with their respective maximum intended inventory).

Compliance officers will use these documents to determine the hazards that may be present at the worksite and set initial benchmarks and expectations for the physical inspection of the establishment.

Finally, at their discretion, compliance officers can conduct abbreviated conferences in order to begin the walkaround portion of the inspection as soon as possible. During an abbreviated conference, a compliance officer will present his or her credentials, state the purpose for the visit, explain employee and employer rights, and request the participation of employee and employer representatives. All other elements of the opening conference will then be discussed during the closing conference.

WALK-AROUND

The walk-around is the most important stage of the inspection. Employer and employee representatives have the right to accompany compliance officers during the walk-around stage of the inspection. However, workers at an establishment without a union cannot appoint a union representative to act on their behalf during an OSHA inspection walkaround (see OSHA memo from 2017).

During the walk-around, compliance officers will take notes and document all facts pertinent to violations of the OSH Act. In general, compliance officers will also offer limited assistance (as appropriate) on how to reduce or eliminate workplace hazards.

The OSH Act requires compliance officers to maintain the confidentiality of employer trade secrets. Compliance officers should only document evidence involving trade secrets if necessary. Compliance officers must mark trade secret evidence as, “Confidential – Trade Secret,” and keep it separate from other evidence. Compliance officers that violate these requirements are subject to criminal sanctions and removal from office.

Tips and Reminders

  • Inspections may last several days. Plan accordingly.
  • Require inspectors to comply with establishment safety rules.
  • Take note of what the inspector documents.
  • DO NOT stage events or accidents.
  • DO NOT destroy or tamper with evidence.

CLOSING CONFERENCE

As with the opening conference, unless an objection exists, the closing conference is generally a joint conference. However, the closing conference may be conducted in person or over the phone. The inspection and citation process will move forward regardless of whether employers decide to participate in the closing conference.

The compliance officer will document all materials he or she provides to the employer during the closing conference as well as any discussions that took place. Discussion topics for the closing conference may include:

  • Employer rights and responsibilities
  • The strengths and weaknesses of the employer’s safety and health system
  • The existence of any apparent violations and other issues found during the inspection
  • Any plans for subsequent conferences, meetings and discussions

The closing conference is not the time for employers to debate or argue possible citations with the compliance officer. Employers should take sufficient time during the closing conference to understand the inspector’s findings and any possible consequences. Employers should also discuss any abatements completed during the inspection or any plans to correct issues in the near future.

During this conference, employers should also request copies of recorded materials and sample analysis summaries. Finally, employers should take time to discuss their right (and the process they must follow) to appeal any possible citations.


Senate passes bill to combat opioid epidemic

On September 17, the Senate passed a bill to help fight prescription drug and opioid misuse in the United States. Read this blog post to learn more.


Both parties got behind a bill designed to fight the misuse of opioids and other addictive medications, with a sole Republican voting against it as it passed in the Senate.

See also: The days of employers ignoring the opioid crisis are over

As reported by the Associated Press, Utah Republican Mike Lee was the sole dissenting voice as the bill was passed 99-1.

According to the reports, the legislation’s reach is broad, with provisions for deeper scrutiny of arriving international mail that could contain illegal drugs; money for the National Institutes of Health research on nonaddictive painkillers; paving the way for pharmaceutical companies to conduct research on alternatives; approval for the Food and Drug Administration to require drug manufacturers to provide opioids and similar drugs in smaller quantities and packages; and provides federal grants for treatment centers, emergency worker training and prevention research.

See also: A look at how the opioid crisis has affected people with employer coverage

It also would push physicians to discuss pain management alternatives with Medicare patients, something that could have an effect on Department of Health and Human Services data indicating that a third of Medicare Part D prescription plan users in 2017 were prescribed opioids.

“I recognize these provisions are just a start, but we are losing 116 lives every day. And we need to save as many as we can—as soon as we can,” Sen. Gary Peters (D., Mich.) told the Senate.

See also: Employers take steps to address opioid crisis

Funding for the provisions of the measure will have to come from separate spending bills, and for the bill to become law, it will have to be reconciled with legislation that passed the House back in June. Despite the high level of tension between Democrats and Republicans at present, according to the Wall Street Journal, “Senate aides are optimistic the measures can be reconciled and passed by the end of the year.” Still, opioid use is definitely a bipartisan issue, hitting red and blue states alike, with preliminary data from the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention indicating that in 2017 U.S. overdose deaths from all drugs set a record and ballooned to more than 72,000.

SOURCE: Satter, M. (18 September 2018) "Senate passes bill to combat opioid epidemic" (Web Blog Post). Retrieved from https://www.benefitspro.com/2018/09/18/senate-passes-bill-to-combat-opioid-epidemic/


Eliminate Electronic Distractions from the Workplace

It is a generally accepted fact that the use of cellphones and other electronic devices while driving present a distraction that greatly increases the chance for an accident. Unfortunately, what too many people fail to take into consideration is how distracting these devices can be in other situations.

In an industry of moving machinery and equipment, manufacturing workers are especially susceptible to workplace injury. They need to be alert at all times, as even the smallest slip-up can cause an accident. Not only can an inattentive worker injure themselves but their carelessness can also endanger others. In this type of work environment it is easy to see the importance of minimizing the potential distractions faced by your employees.

Cellphones

Whether it’s talking or texting, cellphone use takes the employees focus off their task. While handheld use compounds the problem, even using a hands-free device does not allow for full concentration. Studies indicate that the act of talking on the phone is distracting regardless of whether the user is physically holding the device or not. It is the conversation itself that takes an employee’s focus off their work and surroundings.

While some employees may need to use a work cellphone as part of their job, it is best to place restrictions on when and where those phones can be used. Personal cellphones should not be allowed on the manufacturing floor at all, as even the momentary distraction of a call or message alert can potentially lead to an accident. Employees should not have phones on their person during work hours unless they are on a break from their duties and are in a designated break area.

Attentive, focused employees are essential to creating a safe work environment. To reduce the chance for employee injury, it is important to keep the workplace free of distractions, such as cellphones and mp3 players.

Mp3 and Other Music Players

There are a variety of audio cues that alert workers to what is happening around them. Unfortunately, when an employee’s hearing is impaired by music, a shout from a coworker, an odd sound from a malfunctioning machine or the backup alarm on a truck or forklift can be easily missed. Besides limiting the worker’s ability to hear what is going on around them, there is also the potential distraction of operating the device. When adjusting volume or switching songs, not only is the employee’s hearing impaired, but they are also visually engaged with the device. This greatly decreases the worker’s awareness of his or her surroundings.

Potential Hearing Loss

In a manufacturing setting it is not uncommon for there to be high noise levels that require proper ear protection to prevent hearing loss. The use of cellphones, hands-free devices and headphones can interfere with an employee’s proper use of protective equipment. Even though such devices may cover the ear, most are not meant to provide hearing protection.

In fact, in noisy situations, devices that administer sound directly into the ear increase dangerous levels of noise exposure as employees turn up volume levels to drown out background noise. The combination of these noise exposures greatly increases the rate of hearing loss, which in turn increases the chance for occupational hearing loss claims.

Electronics Usage Policy

Attentive, focused employees are essential to creating a safe work environment, which is why it is important to eliminate possible distractions. Prohibiting employee use of personal electronic devices can aid in reducing workplace accidents. To clearly state your company’s rules on when and where usage is restricted, institute an electronics usage policy. Once instituted, train your employees in the policy requirements and make sure restrictions are diligently enforced.


Why Work? For More than the Money

Discovering the individualized reasons people work is key to helping employers understand what will motivate employees.

According to the article "What People Want from Work: Motivation" on the website The Balance, successful companies need to start with money. Paying employees fair compensation, or ideally more than fair, brings the talent in and reduces the risk of losing great employees. Money helps employees check off responsibilities ranging from taking care of the most basic necessities to enjoying hobbies to long-term planning for retirement.

Turns out, it takes more than money, though. 

While many managers assumed money is the biggest factor, it is only one part of an ecosystem of motivation. Knowing that there are other reasons that get people up and out of bed to head to work can help employers better meet employee needs.

What were some of those factors?

Personal time and attention from a manager, the opportunity to feel known and praised for good work, was the top motivator for workers. Being valued, it turns out, can be as valuable as monetary compensation.

What's more, people want to see that the opposite is also true. Lack of consequences and failure to discipline for not performing is cited as a main demotivator, along with paying those less successful workers the same wage.

Beyond fair pay and managerial recognition, what other factors did workers mention? More control over work, including feeling like they have a say in decision making and goal setting, was one element. Likewise, a feeling of control over schedules and work environments also mattered. Flexibility is a major motivator for many employees. 

Another motivator surrounded opportunity. Both growth opportunities within a role and opportunities for advancement in an institution ranked highly for employees. Access to education and training as well as understanding succession planning and what was needed to be promoted (and that promotions were possible) impact morale and retention.

The big takeaway? While motivation is different for every employee, it is potentially easier than you think to understand what will motivate your employees. Ask them. Many easy, low-cost options abound which, if done well, free up time and money from other efforts that may not yield the assumed results. Pay attention, and you'll find yourself working with motivated, engaged people.

Read the full article here.